I testi raccolti in questo fascicolo di Ars Interpretandi sono il frutto di un seminario internazionale e interdisciplinare svoltosi il 28 novembre 2013 presso il Dipartimento di Filosofia e Comunicazione dell’Università degli Studi di Bologna.
La prospettiva muovendo dalla quale si è tentato di offrire un contributo alla discussione teorica su diritto e comunità stata quella suggerita dalla riflessione plurale e ramificata sottesa all’opera di una delle voci più influenti nell’attuale dibattito filosofico-pratico. Parliamo di Michael Walzer, che ha negli anni reso ambivalente, e insieme stimolante e controverso, il circolo o il cortocircuito tra forza, diritto e comunità.
Marina Lalatta Costerbosa
Introduzione. Molteplici universalismi: le traiettorie di Michael Walzer
Ideali di pace nella Bibbia ebraica
Keywords: Submission – Deterrence – Mutual Advantage – Messianism – Pluralism.
English Abstract: In this article, Michael Walzer compares six different ideas of peace found in different books of the Hebrew Bible. The six ideas of peace show important moral as well as political differences. Peace is interpreted respectively: as subjection to an overwhelming force; as a period of “rest” between wars; as made possible by deterrence; or, more positively, as founded on mutual benefit; or as a messianic future. Beautiful as it may be, this last idea of peace has the defect of not being practically possible, though it may move people to do practical things that they did not imagine they could do. The last idea considered here is that of “many peoples”, with their disagreements and conflicts, “going up” to the mountain of the Lord for enlightenment and judgment. This vision is defended here because of its realism. It suggests the idea of pluralism (“many peoples”) as a permanent feature of human life and international society.
Religione, politica e storia in Michael Walzer: ermeneutica dell’Esodo
Keywords: Religion – Exodus – History – Politics.
English Abstract: The A. takes Judaism, and in it the book of Exodus, as a necessary background to understand the thought of Michael Walzer. The passage on the Golden Calf was of crucial importance also in the religious experience of the New York philosopher as a young man. Zamagni quotes Sigmund Freud to ask: is it a true story? Walzer writes several times he is not interested in this particular aspect. But the plurality of the (also legal) sources of the Bible, the constitutive plurality of God’s names, does not jeopardize the repeatability of the model of the Exodus as plural political paradigm, on the contrary. The society is originated in that decisive (and violent) passage by the covenant, and going back would mean to go back to the Egyptians’ pots or even worse, to the worship of the Golden Calf.
Michael Walzer e il pluralismo normativo
Keywords: Judaism – Obligation – Pluralism – Interpretation – Critics.
English Abstract: The paper addresses Walzer’s thought with regard to the notions of obligation and dissent, and the conflict between values that draws from Jewish culture. The analysis reveals some risks and some inherent difficulties with Walzer’s approach in giving a due account of the distinction between politics and morality and of the role to be ascribed to the legal sphere. Even when Walzer tries to fill in this lack of attention, he adheres to a peculiar perspective that is based, finally, on a sort of “Jewish exceptionalism”, which, while it works to support an authentic pluralism, seems to be troubling.
Il metodo di Michael Walzer: tra arte del «tracciar confini» e «mani sporche»
Keywords: Communitarianism – Particularism – Pluralism – Interpretations – Boundaries.
English Abstract: In his presentation of Michael Walzer’s method Gianfrancesco Zanetti begins from the personal memory of reading Exodus and Revolution to describe this method not only as destructive but also as a positive effort. The “rootedness” of the philosopher’s interpretative approach takes him neither to relativistic or conservative solutions nor to a universalism of a “covering law”. His moral realism describes a concrete approach to the problems to elaborate workable solutions. Walzer’s attention to pluralism and to the connections between religion and politics allows him to discuss every form of one-sidedness, dogmatism and mainstream thinking. Drawing the line, the boundaries become therefore of crucial importance to realize a more just society, even at the cost of having dirty hands.
L’universalismo come trappola, o dell’uso ingannevole della teoria
Keywords: Walzer – Lie – Universalism – Communitarianism – War.
English Abstract: This essay analyzes Walzer’s argumentations on “just war” showing the relationship between theoretical and moral arguments, on the one hand, and political judgments, on the other. On the ground of “Arguing about War”, the A. focuses in particular on the concepts of “terrorism”, “humanitarian intervention” and “extreme emergency” and points out how they are defined by formal universalistic criteria but applied in a particularistic way in the reconstructions of facts intended to justify recent Usa and Nato war interventions in Iraq (1991, 2003), Kosovo (1999), and Afghanistan (2001).
Questione di confini: diritto, diritti e guerra in Michael Walzer
Keywords: Critics – Hermeneutics – Disciplinary Languages – Right – Ethics.
English Abstract: By a comparative analysis of Walzer’ scientific works in the field “social criticism” and “just/unjust war”, the essay shows that the tension between the categories internal/external is working in the complex of author arguments. Such a contraposition, examined from the strict perspective of the disciplinary languages, which articulate the “modern” moral-historical world, has to be considered constitutive of the separation between juridical and moral paradigm, social acting and communitarian belonging, reasons and meaning, critics and interpretation. Walzer’ attitude to contaminate disciplinary languages, on the contrary, make it impossible for him to investigate the aporetic overcoming from the juridical “boundaries” to political and cultural “frontier”.
Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig
Th. Casadei, Il sovversivismo dell’immanenza. Diritto, morale e politica in Michael Walzer, Giuffrè, Milano 2012